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History of Plastic Surgery

Plastic Surgery, 2000 – Present

Plastic Surgery from the year 2000 until now is characterized by the introduction of robots and technology. Surgeons prepare using advanced technology and may transmit the surgery online. Advancement in immune therapy treatment allows advanced transplants with less severe side-effects of the medicine.

2000: The Robot surgery system “da Vinci” approved by the FDA, named after Leonardo da Vinci who drew the first robot.1 The system is fully controlled by a surgeon, operating sitting in the console. Four robot arms and a camera arm are used.

2001: First international trans-Atlantic Telesurgery. A patient in Strasbourg, France get his gallbladder removed by the French surgeon Dr. Jacques Marescaux, sitting in New York, 6500 km away.2

2005: First partial face transplant by French surgeons Jean-Michel Dubernard and Professor Bernard Devauchelle.3,4

2008: First full face transplant performed by French Plastic Surgeon Laurent Lantieri et al. He also performed the worlds second and third face transplant.5,3

2011: ISPRES – the International Society for Plastic and Regenerative Surgery is established in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.6

2013: First live streamed surgery in England through Google Glass to 13000 surgical students around the globe. By Mr. Shafi Ahmed, Queen Mary University Hospital, London.7

2013: First growing and reconstruction of a nose using the patient’s forehead skin. Performed by Chinese doctors at Imperial College, Fuzhou8

2014: First full penile transplant, by surgeons a Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa.9

2015: First skull and scalp transplant to an American patient due to severe cancer. Performed by surgeons at MD Anderson Cancer Center and Houston Methodist Hospital, Texas.10 The patient also had a simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplant.

2016, February: First uterus transplant in the United States, at the Cleveland Clinic. In Sweden, a baby is born by a woman with a uterus transplant.11,12

2016, April 14th: The world first live virtual reality live surgery in 360 degrees.13


  1. Da vinci. minimally invasive surgery. http://www.davincisurgery.com/ n.d.
  2. First telesurgery. intersurgtech.com. website: http://www.intersurgtech.com/media.html n.d.
  3. Garrett G L, Beegun I, D’souza A. Facial transplantation: historical developments and future directions. J Laryngol Otol 2015;129(3):206–11. Doi: 10.1017/S0022215114003478.
  4. Face transplant patient satisfied after 18 months. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/12/ar2007121202012.html?nav=rss_print/asection n.d.
  5. Transformed by a face transplant. http://abcnews.go.com/health/story?id=4511813&page=1 n.d.
  6. Ispres homepage. https://www.ispres.org/about-us/founding-members n.d.
  7. First operation streamed live with surgeon wearing google glass. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/10851116/first-operation-streamed-live-with-surgeon-wearing-google-glass.html n.d.
  8. 90   8   New nose grown by surgeons to replace original one. http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/24280766/new-nose-grown-by-surgeons-to-replace-original-one n.d.
  9. Bateman Chris. World’s first successful penis transplant at tygerberg hospital. S Afr Med J 2015:251–2.
  10. World-first skull and scalp transplant gives texas man “new lease on life”. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jun/05/world-first-skull-and-scalp-transplant-gives-texas-man-new-lease-on-life n.d.
  11. qq  Suganuma Nobuhiko, Hayashi Ayako, Kisu Iori, Banno Kouji, Hara Hisako, Mihara Makoto. Uterus transplantation: toward clinical application in japan. Reprod Med Biol 2017;16(4):305–13. Doi: 10.1002/rmb2.12048.
  12. Cleveland clinic performs first uterus transplant in the u.s. http://edition.cnn.com/2016/02/26/health/first-uterus-transplant/index.html n.d.
  13. Watch the world’s first surgery streamed in virtual reality live from london. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/04/14/watch-the-worlds-first-surgery-streamed-in-virtual-reality-live/ n.d.

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