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Authors Kristina Asdahl, MD, Magnus Balslev Avnstorp, MD And Tine Damsgaard, MD, PhD, Professor, edited by Mia Wangsmo Steffenssen, MD.

This chapter describes breast ptosis, hypertrophy, asymmetry, and gynecomastia. Breast surgery based on breast carcinoma is to be found in the chapter Breast Cancer.


  • Mastopexy Breast lift
  • Breast reduction Reducing the size of the breast
  • Augmentation Mammoplasty Increasing the size, change of shape, and altering texture of the breast
  • NAC Nipple Areola Complex
  • IMF Inframammary fold


Hippocrates (466-376 BCE) was the first documenting the removal of a breast tumor. Roman physician-surgeon Aulus Cornelis Celsus (50 AD) wrote the book “De Medicina” describing a detailed breast reduction procedure.Today several methods of breast procedures for reduction and augmentation exists.